The future tense with conjunctions: A will-will situation
In a previous lesson, we discussed how Italian uses the future tense to express probability, as well as the future itself. Now, getting back to the normal use of the future tense, we’re going to see how it works when using conjunctions such as se (if), quando (when), appena (as soon as), non appena (as soon as), finché (as long as), and finché non (until) to connect two parts of a sentence. Italian and English have two different approaches to this. In Italian the future tense has to be present on both sides of the conjunction, while in English the future tense appears on only one side. Consider the following example, where Francesca is telling us about what she is going to wear when she goes skiing:
Questa la indosserò quando sarò in prossimità dei campi da sci.
This I'll put on when I'm close to the ski slopes.
Caption 27, Francesca: neve - Part 2 of 3
Translated literally, this would be: This I’ll put on when I will be close to the ski slopes.
What we we need to remember is that in Italian the future tense will appear on both sides of these conjunctions—a “will-will” situation.
One important conjunction frequently used with the future is appena (as soon as). Attenzione! Appena by itself is also an adverb meaning “barely,” “scarcely,” or “just.”
Ho appena finito.
I just finished.
Si vedeva appena.
One could barely see it.
When used as a conjunction meaning “as soon as,” appena will often be preceded by non, which, depending on the context, can give it an extra bit of urgency or emphasis. (Note that non in this case has nothing to do with negation.) In English we might say “just as soon as” for that same kind of emphasis.
Mi chiamerà appena starà meglio.
She’ll call me as soon as she’s better.
Mi chiamerà non appena starà meglio.
She’ll call me as soon as she’s better.
She’ll call me just as soon as she’s better.
We can put the conjunction at the beginning of the sentence, but il succo non cambia (the “juice” or gist doesn’t change).
Appena starà meglio, mi chiamerà.
[It could also be: Non appena starà meglio mi chiamerà.]
As soon as she's better, she’ll call me.
Just as soon as she’s better, she’ll call me.
Two more related conjunctions used with the future are finché (as long as) and finché non (until). While appena can appear with or without “non” preceding it and mean pretty much the same thing, with finché and finche non, we have two related but distinct meanings. Finché by itself means “as long as,” but if we negate it with non, it becomes “until.” Let’s see how this works.
In the following example, Manara’s boss is warning him about his unconventional behavior. Grammatically speaking, he uses the futuro anteriore, but the key here is that he uses the future, where in English “until” calls for the present perfect (“have shown”) here.
Lei non se ne andrà da qui finché non avrà dimostrato di essere un vero commissario.
You' won’t leave here until you've shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Translated literally: You won’t leave this place until you will have shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Or, to understand how finché non becomes “until”: You won’t leave this place as long as you will not have shown yourself to be a true commissioner.
Attenzione! Occasionally finché non will be used in speech without “non,” but will still clearly mean “until.” The context will clue you in. If you watch this video about Fellini, you’ll come across an example of this in caption 13.
As you watch Yabla videos, pay special attention to the conjunctions mentioned above when they crop up. It’s worth spending some time understanding first hand how this works in Italian, so why not try making up some sentences using these conjunctions and the future tense? To get started:
Non appena avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
Just as soon as I’m finished eating, I’ll do my homework.
Appena avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
As soon as I’ve finished eating, I’ll do my homework.
Non farò i compiti finché non avrò finito di mangiare.
I’m not going to do my homework until I’ve finished eating.
Finché starò a tavola, non penserò ai compiti.
As long as I’m at the dinner table, I’m not going to think about my homework.
Se non avrò finito di mangiare, non potrò cominciare.
If I haven’t finished eating, I won’t be able to start.
Quando avrò finito di mangiare, farò i compiti.
When I’ve finished eating, I’ll do my homework.
In this lesson, we're going to talk about the future tense in Italian, and how it's used, not just for the future, but also for probability.
In our first example, Federico Fellini is talking about a future meeting with Ingmar Bergman, and as you can see from the translation, he uses the verb essere in its future tense in a straightforward way. He has no doubts about the outcome: It’s going to be stimulating!
Io penso che l'incontro fra lui e me sarà veramente molto stimolante.
I think that the encounter between him and me will be really very stimulating.
In this next example, however, the verb essere is again used in the future tense, but here it means something completely different! In fact, one of the uses of the future tense in Italian is to express a supposition, probability, uncertainty, or doubt. In this case, the element of time is no longer taken into consideration and is replaced by a kind of conditional mood (appunto, the future is now—probably).
Guarda, stamattina ho appetito. Sarà l'aria di campagna.
Look, this morning I have an appetite. It must be the country air.
Although this special use can be applied to any verb, it’s most common with essere and avere. In Un medico in famiglia, Lele is reassuring his daughter, Maria, about the future. He’s sure!
Sono sicuro che ti piacerà la nuova scuola e avrai un sacco di nuovi amichetti.
I’m sure you will like the new school and you’ll have a lot of new playmates.
Captions 9-10, Un medico in famiglia - 1: Casa nuova - Part 7 of 16
But here, the signora is just making a good guess as to how hungry her passenger Alessio is.
Avrai fame immagino, sì? Andiamo?
You must be hungry, I imagine, right? Shall we go?
In her Yabla newscast, Marika is giving us some very suspicious news from another planet, and she expresses her consternation:
Could it be true?
Another way to ask the above question would be: potrebbe essere vero? (could it be true?) or even può essere vero? (can it be true?). But more often than not, the future tense will be used when talking about probability in the present, or even in the past (together with a participle), as in the following example, where there’s uncertainty in retrospect.
Non lo so. Sarà stata una buona idea farlo venire qua?
I don't know. Was it such a good idea to have him come here?
Here are a couple more examples to give you an idea.
In an episode of Un medico in famiglia, the family members are wondering what Cetinka is about to take out of her suitcase:
Che è, che sarà? -Non lo so!
What is it, what could it be? -I don't know!
Captions 36-37, Un medico in famiglia - 2: Il mistero di Cetinka - Part 9 of 12
In a lively discussion between Lara and her zia about Ginevra, the attractive medical examiner, the aunt defends Commissario Manara, which infuriates Lara even more.
E Luca la sta coprendo! -Avrà le sue buone ragioni, eh!
And Luca is covering for her! -He must have a good reason, huh!
As you watch and listen to Yabla videos, notice how the future tense is used. You may be surprised at how often it is used to express probability, supposition, or uncertainty. And as you go about your day, maybe talking to yourself in Italian, use the future tense of essere or avere to wonder about things and their probability. Sometimes you may really be wondering about the future, as in:
Sarà una bella giornata?
Will it be a nice day?
But other times you may just be conjecturing:
Sarà una brava persona, ma dal suo comportamento non sembra proprio.
He may be a good person, but from his behavior it certainly doesn’t seem like it.
Sento bussare alla porta. Sarà il postino.
I hear someone knocking at the door. It’s probably the postman.
Perché non è ancora arrivato? Avrà avuto un contrattempo!
Why hasn’t he come yet? He must have had a setback.
So as you can see, in Italian, the future can be right now!
As we saw in a previous lesson, Italians are very conscious of formal and informal greetings, and will say hello in different ways depending on the situation. But there’s more. When speaking or writing to someone they must, or want, to treat with respect, they’ll use the polite form of “you”—Lei. This happens to be identical to the word for “she,” lei. For a fascinating explanation, see this article and its continuation here. To show respect, Lei gets capitalized, together with its possessive pronouns Sua, Sue, Suoi (your, yours) and its object pronouns La and Le (you). Although the capitalization of these pronouns is going out of style, it can be helpful for figuring out who is being talked about. Using the formal “you” is called dare del Lei (giving the formal “you”). The opposite is called dare del tu (giving the informal “you”).
In Ma Che Ci Faccio Qui (But What Am I Doing Here?), Alessio finds himself in an embarrassing situation. (Yes, he’s about to fare brutta figura!) Things have gotten decidedly intimo, but Alessio da ancora del Lei (is still giving the formal “you”) to this woman, and she calls him out on it.
Ma che fai, mi dai ancora del Lei?
What are you doing, you still address me formally?Play Caption
In an episode of Commissario Manara, Lara is trying to get some information from a woman in shock over the death of her employer. Lara uses Lei since she is addressing someone older than her, and whom she doesn’t know. Lara sees the woman is touchy on the subject at hand so she immediately apologizes, even though she’s done nothing wrong.
When the personal pronoun in question is an object, either direct or indirect, it can become part of the verb, as we’ve talked about in a previous lesson. In the example below, the polite “you” is a direct object of the verb offendere (to offend), and becomes part of it (with a respectful capital letter in this case).
Mi scusi, non volevo offenderLa.
I'm sorry, I didn't want to offend you.Play Caption
In another episode, Luca Manara is being polite to his boss, but only on the surface. In this case, the indirect object pronoun is part of the compound verb, riferire a (to report to).
Ma, come, purtroppo Lei mi ricorda, io devo riferirLe tutto, no? -Si aspetta magari che le dica bravo?
But, since, unfortunately you remind me, I have to tell you everything, don't I? -Maybe you're expecting me say, "Good work?"
Captions 25-26, Il Commissario Manara S1EP2 - Vendemmia tardiva - Part 17Play Caption
In the concluding segment of “Vendemmia tardiva,” la zia, as usual, uses her powers of conversazione and intuizione femminile to help solve the crime:
Avevo capito che, in tutti questi anni, è stata innamorata di lui. E per trent'anni gli ha dato del Lei, ma ti rendi conto?
I'd figured out that, for all these years, she'd been in love with him. And for thirty years she addressed him formally, can you imagine that?Play Caption
Dare del tu (to address informally) or dare del Lei (to address formally) is an important aspect to settle in a new relationship. A common question to ask is: ci possiamo dare del tu? (can we give each other the informal "you?") or, ci diamo del tu? (shall we give each other the informal “you?”). The answer is almost always: sì, certo!
In certain situations, it’s important to put one’s best foot forward, to make a good impression. In Italian, that’s fare bella figura, or simply, fare figura. For example:
Le sue scarpe sono costate poco, ma fanno figura.
Her shoes didn’t cost very much, but they make her look good (or, “they make a good impression”).
Fare bella figura (making a good impression) isn’t always possible though. Sometimes, without meaning to, you botch it and make a bad impression, or worse, are embarrassed by something you did or said. And that’s when you use brutta figura (bad impression). Just as bella is often left to our imagination, in this case, too, it’s common to leave off the brutta. To determine whether someone’s talking about a good or bad figura, pay close attention to the context, as well as to the speaker’s inflection and facial expression.
O mamma mia! Mamma mia, che figura che ho fatto.
Oh dear! Oh dear, what a bad impression I've made.Play Caption
Note: The fact that there’s no article here is normal for this idiom, but in some cases an article or other modifier will be included for clarity or emphasis.
What about when someone puts you in an embarrassing situation, or makes you look like a fool? Ti fa fare brutta figura (he/she makes you make a bad impression).
In an episode of Medico in Famiglia, Maria has gone missing, and her parents call her supposed boyfriend to find out where she is. He’s not her boyfriend, though, so just imagine how embarrassed she is upon discovering they’d called him.
Mi avete fatto fare questa figura?
You made me make a bad impression? [Did you make me look stupid?]Play Caption
Maria’s brother has a retort ready with a play on words. He uses a more neutral definition of figura (figure, person, appearance, impression):
Non hai fatto nessuna figura perché quello, a te, non ti vede proprio! -Eh, bambini...
You made no impression at all because that one doesn't even see you! -Uh, kids...
Captions 63-64, Un medico in famiglia s.1 e.1 - Casa nuova - Part 13Play Caption
Another expression that’s used a lot in relational conversations comes from the verb figurare (to appear, to be, to show). This expression can be used as a sort of antidote to someone’s feeling as if they’re making or have made a brutta figura. It uses the reflexive form figurarsi (to imagine).
If you apologize for being late, or if you ask if you are disturbing someone, the response might likely be figurati! (of course not!). The person saying it is attempting to put you at ease, for example after you forgot a dinner date.
E tu lo trovi leale accettare un invito a cena e poi non presentarsi? -Non ti ho avvertito? Scusami. Ci sei rimasto male? -Figurati, la cena era ottima.
And do you find it loyal to accept a dinner invitation and then not come? -Didn't I let you know? Sorry. Did you feel hurt? -Of course not, the dinner was excellent.
Captions 6-9, Il Commissario Manara S1EP3 - Rapsodia in Blu - Part 3Play Caption
At the same time, it can mean something like “no way!” or “yeah, right!” or “don’t count on it!”:
C'hai paura? Paura io? Ma figurati.
What, are you scared? Scared, me? Don't count on it.
Captions 44-46, Il Commissario Manara S1EP3 - Rapsodia in Blu - Part 17Play Caption
Watch and listen to the Yabla videos where these expressions are present (do a search of both figura and figurati). Hide the translation. Listen for the inflection. Is the speaker trying to put someone at ease, or being ironic? When no adjective is present for describing the figura, which do you think it is?
Meanwhile, imagine a situation—invent a dialogue. Here’s something to get you started.
Ti ho fatto fare brutta figura? -Ma figurati, ho fatto la figura dello scemo tutto da solo.
Did I embarrass you? -Of course not, I came off as an idiot all by myself.
Devo dire che quegli orecchini da due soldi fanno figura! -Grazie, ma questa giacca vecchissima, che figura fa? -Beh, per me, fai sempre una bellissima figura.
I gotta say, those cheap earrings happen to look really nice! -Thanks, but this super old jacket, how does that make me look? -Well, to me, you always look great!
Che figura! Quando sono arrivata alla cassa, non avevo abbastanza soldi per pagare.
How embarrassing! When I got to the check out, I didn’t have enough money to pay.
Il capo mi darà un aumento, sicuro! -Figurati!
The boss is going to give me a raise, for sure! -Yeah, right. (or, “Don’t count on it!”)
Divertitevi! (Have fun!)
When you worry about something, it’s hard to think about anything else. With this in mind, it won’t come as too much of a surprise that the Italian word for worrying sounds a lot like the verb “to preoccupy.” The infinitive is preoccupare (to worry), usually used reflexively—preoccuparsi (to worry about)—the adjective/participle is preoccupato (worried), and the noun is preoccupazione (cause for worry) with its plural, preoccupazioni (worries, troubles). We all do our share of worrying, so it’s a good word to be familiar with!
In the story of La Bohème, Rodolfo is worried about Mimì because she has tuberculosis.
l'ho sentito che si confidava con Marcello, il suo amico pittore, e gli diceva che era preoccupato per via della mia malattia.
I heard him confiding to his friend Marcello, his painter friend, and he told him that he was worried because of my illness.
Captions 30-31, Anna presenta La Bohème di Puccini - Part 1Play Caption
Andiamo a casa, va'! Se no zia si preoccupa.
Let's go home, come on! Otherwise Auntie will worry.
Captions 36-37, Il Commissario Manara S1EP3 - Rapsodia in Blu - Part 9Play Caption
Sometimes people worry for no reason, so we want to reassure them. In other words, we’re giving the negative command, “Don’t worry.” Negative commands in Italian are easy when you’re talking to friends and family: non + the infinitive of a verb.
So, if a friend or familiar person is preoccupato and they shouldn’t be, take after Adriano, who’s reassuring his grandmother. She’s family, so he speaks informally to her. As he sings her praises, she notices something off-camera and points to it. He doesn’t want her to worry about it, or even to pay attention to it:
Non ti preoccupare, nonna.
Don't worry Grandma.
Caption 26, Adriano NonnaPlay Caption
Remember that preoccupare is generally used reflexively (preoccuparsi), so just like with other reflexive verbs, the personal pronoun can go in two different positions (both are equally grammatical): before the verb, as Adriano says it, or attached to the end of the verb as below. See this previous lesson, and this one, too, for more on reflexive verbs.
Scusa, eh, per le foto così brutte, ma le ha fatte mio marito, quindi... No, ma non preoccuparti.
Sorry, uh, for such bad photos, but my husband took them, so... No, but don't worry about it.
Captions 34-35, Il Commissario Manara S1EP1 - Un delitto perfetto - Part 7Play Caption
If, on the other hand, you need to tell someone you don’t know very well not to worry, use the polite form of the imperative (more on doing so here): Non si preoccupi. Without delving into a lot of grammar, just memorizing the phrase (with a nice accent on the “o”) will be helpful when you’re addressing someone like a salesperson, someone’s parent, a teacher, or a doctor, as in the following example.
Dottore non si preoccupi, ci occuperemo noi di lui.
Doctor don't worry, we'll take care of him.Play Caption
Gualtiero Marchesi forgets his troubles by going back to his childhood haunts. Pensieri (thoughts, worries) go hand in hand with preoccupazioni (worries, troubles):
Sono sempre tornato nei luoghi della mia infanzia, a volte, all'improvviso, lasciandomi alle spalle pensieri e preoccupazioni.
I've always returned to the places of my childhood, sometimes, suddenly, leaving my thoughts and worries behind.
Captions 16-17, L'arte della cucina Terre d'Acqua - Part 12Play Caption
As an aside, the antidote to worrying is frequently to take care of something, and the verb for that is occuparsi (to take care of, to deal with), not to be confused with preoccuparsi.
When you meet people or pass them on the street, consider whether you would speak to them informally or formally, and tell them, in your mind, not to worry. Would you say non ti preoccupare or non si preoccupi?
Francesca is showing Daniela how to play one of the most popular Italian card games, Briscola. Two little words stand out, and merit some attention. They’re both in the category of “but,” yet they are more specific and allow for a more elegant turn of phrase. The first is the conjunction bensì (but rather).
La briscola, eh, come molti non sanno, non è un gioco nato in Italia, bensì in Olanda, nei Paesi Bassi.
Briscola, uh, as a lot of people don't know, is not a game originating in Italy, but rather in Holland, in the Netherlands.
Captions 5-6, Briscola: Regole del gioco - Part 1 of 2
The other one, ovvero (or rather), is used by Francesca who’s trying make things crystal clear, so she’s using language that’s a little more formal than usual. Ovvero is somewhat archaic, and is often a fancy way of saying o (“or,” “that is,” or “otherwise”).
Nella briscola ci sono delle carte che sono più importanti delle altre, ovvero, te le vado subito a mostrare.
In Briscola there are some cards that are more important than others, or rather, I'm going to show you right now.
Captions 24-25, Briscola: Regole del gioco - Part 1 of 2
In more informal speech, you’ll hear words like ma (but), invece (but, instead, rather), nel senso (I mean, in the sense), to express similar sentiments.
Speaking of informal speech, it’s definitely the norm in Lele’s family. One of the words that creeps into casual speech is mica (“not,” or “at all”). Think of when you say, “Not bad! Not bad at all!” That’s one time you’ll want to say, mica male! It’s a form of negation equivalent to non. Therefore, non male is just about equivalent to mica male, but think, “exclamation point” at the end. The fun thing about this word is that you can use it by itself, like Ciccio does, in justifying the shoes he bought with money taken from Grandpa’s pocket:
Ma guarda, Giacinto, che eran per le scarpe, mica per un gioco!
But look, Giacinto, it was for shoes, not for a game!
But you can also use it together with a negative (it’s no crime to use a double negative in Italian) like Ciccio's Grandpa (before finding out who took his money) to emphasize the “no”:
Io sono un pensionato, Cetinka, non sono mica un bancomat!
I'm a retiree, Cetinka, I'm no ATM machine!
The character of Alessio in Ma Che Ci Faccio Qui is older than Ciccio, but just out of high school. His speech is certainly very rich in modi di dire (if you do a Yabla search with mica, you’ll find Alessio and many others!), but in one episode there’s an expression whose translation is not very intuitive—con comodo (in a leisurely way). If you remember that comodo means “comfortable” it will make more sense. Depending on the tone (like in English), it can express patience or impatience!
Vabbè, fate con comodo.
OK, take your time [literally, “do with leisure”].
Watch the video to see which it is in this case!
Learning suggestion: Enrich your vocabulary by using the Yabla search as well as WordReference to get more examples of bensì, ovvero, and mica. There’s no hurry: fate con comodo!
In a previous lesson, we joined Anna and Marika at the famous Trattoria al Tevere Biondo in Rome, where they were having lunch... Later on, after their meal, they start chatting with the owner Giuseppina, who has plenty of stories to tell. She uses an expression that’s kind of fun:
Ma chi me lo fa fà [fare], io m'alzo due ore prima la mattina e la faccio espressa. Ho fatto sempre stò [questo] lavoro. -Così si cura la qualità.
But who makes me do it? I get up two hours earlier in the morning and I do it to order. I've always done it this way. -That way you make sure of the quality.
Captions 24-26, Anna e Marika Trattoria Al Biondo Tevere - Part 3Play Caption
“Who makes me do it?” is the literal translation, but the gist is, “why should I go to all that trouble?” And with her Roman speech, she shortens the infinitive fare (to make, to do) to fà. As a matter of fact, as she tells her stories Giuseppina chops off the end of just about every verb in the infinitive. This way of speaking is popular all over Italy, so get some practice with Giuseppina!
Giuseppina may chop off her verbs, but the characters in Commissario Manara chop off the end of the adverb bene (well), turning it into bè. To agree to something, va bene (literally, "he/she/it goes well") is the expression to use. But when the conversation gets going, and it's a back and forth of "OK, but..." or "All right, all right!" or "OK, let's do this," like between Luca Manara and his team, va bene often becomes vabbè. This simple expression, depending on what tone of voice is used, can say a lot. A Yabla search with vabbè will bring up many examples in Manara videos, and plenty of other videos as well.
In one episode, two detectives on Manara’s team think they’ve made a discovery, but of course the Commissario has already figured things out, and they’re disappointed.
Vabbè, però così non c'è gusto... scusa. -Vabbè, te l'avevo detto io, 'o [lo] sapevo.
OK, but that way there's no satisfaction... sorry. -OK, I told you so, I knew it.
Captions 14-15, Il Commissario Manara S1EP3 - Rapsodia in Blu - Part 13Play Caption
Vabbè is an expression that gets used about as often as “OK.” Sometimes, though, we really do need to know if things are all right. In this case we use the full form, va bene? (is it all right?):
Eh, guardi, pago con la carta. Va bene? -OK.
Uh, look, I'll pay by credit card. All right? -OK.
Captions 38-39, Marika spiega L'euro in Italia, con AnnaPlay Caption
In her reply, the salesperson uses the international, “OK” but she could just as easily have said, va bene (that’s fine).
It’s important to understand abbreviated words when you hear them, but in most situations, when speaking, use the full form—you can’t go wrong.
The bellissimo music video Il regalo più grande (the greatest gift) is a reminder that some of the best gifts can’t be bought with money. If you check out the previous lesson, Gifts and Giving, you’ll be all set to understand what Tiziano Ferro is singing about.
Per cominciare (to start with), remember that in Italian, gifts (regali) are “made,” not "given," so we use the verb fare (to make):
Voglio farti un regalo
I want to give you a gift
Caption 1, Tiziano Ferro: Il regalo più grande
Vorrei donare il tuo sorriso alla luna
I'd like to give your smile to the moon
Caption 10, Tiziano Ferro: Il regalo più grande
Let’s look at these lyrics from a grammatical punto di vista (point of view). Tiziano sings in the present tense at the beginning of the song: voglio farti un regalo (I want to give you a gift). He goes on to use the conditional vorrei donare (I would like to give). But further on in the song, he would like to receive a gift, and the grammar gets a bit more complex:
Vorrei mi facessi un regalo
I would like you to give me a gift
Un sogno inespresso
An unexpressed dream
To give it to me now
Caption 19-21, Tiziano Ferro: Il regalo più grande
He again uses the first person conditional of volere (to want), "vorrei" (I would like), but turns the phrase around, which calls for the subjunctive of fare (to make) in the second person imperfect, facessi. Translating it a bit more loosely may help it make more sense: “I would like [it if] you gave me a gift.”
And finally, he uses the infinitive donare (minus the final e), the indirect object/personal pronoun me, and the direct object lo all in one single word, donarmelo.
Take a look at the conjugations of fare (to make, to do) and volere (to want). You might even be surprised to see that you know more conditional forms of these verbs than you thought, just from hearing them. Go one step further and take any of those conjugations, for example, faresti (second person conditional of fare), and do a Yabla search to find out how it’s used in the videos.
Appunto is a word Italians use all the time in speech. It officially translates as “indeed,” or “exactly,” but often means, “like I was saying,” “more precisely,” or “as already stated.” The important thing to remember is that its function is to refer back to something that's already been mentioned. We could say it points to a word or an idea in order to call your attention to the fact that we’re already on the subject. It confirms a connection.
For starters, let’s see how appunto is used by itself, to mean something like, “that’s exactly what I’m talking about!”:
Lara’s aunt, in an episode of Commissario Manara, is helping out with the investigation in her own neighborly way. She suspects an acquaintance of hiding something, so she sets a trap for him to tell her more. If, as he says, “these things are difficult to forget,” then he can’t say he doesn’t recall! Appunto! One word says it all!
Se lo ricorda, vero? -Altro che! Sono cose queste che si fa fatica a scordare.
You remember it, right? -Do I ever! These are things that are difficult to forget.
Many Italians use appunto liberally, often making it difficult to find an English equivalent, and appunto (indeed), sometimes there is no equivalent without using many more words.
In the following video, Anna is explaining the Jewish Ghetto of Rome, so her use of appunto is a means of linking the Jewish Ghetto to the Jews being confined there.
Qui siamo a Roma, nel quartiere del Ghetto Ebraico, che è appunto la zona di Roma dove, durante la seconda guerra mondiale, venivano confinate le persone appunto ebree.
Here we're in Rome, in the Jewish Ghetto quarter, which is, to be precise, the area of Rome where, during World War II, the Jewish people, as the name implies, were confined.
Captions 1-2, Anna presenta: il ghetto ebraico e piazza mattei
Although there is no quick translation for the second appunto in this sentence, the important thing to know is that Anna is using it to make sure we get the connection.
Sometimes you have to search out the “missing” link. Gualtiero Marchesi is musing about his career, and starts out talking about developing a passion for his work:
Quando ho incominciato ad appassionarmi veramente a quello che facevo...
When I started becoming really passionate about what I was doing...
A bit later he’s still referring to the passione mentioned a few lines back, so he uses appunto to remind us.
Poi quando, appunto, è subentrata la passione, ero curioso, come sempre...
Then, when, like I was saying, passion entered in, I was curious, as always...
Francesca takes us with her to a ski lodge in the mountains. Since her subject is “going to the mountains,” she uses appunto when telling us where chalets can be found, as if to imply that it’s clearly obvious, but she’ll say it anyway.
Eccoci arrivati alla baita. La baita è un luogo che si trova, appunto, in montagna dove ci si va per rifugiarsi dal freddo.
Here we are at the chalet. The chalet is a place you find, logically, in the mountains, where you go to seek refuge from the cold.
Captions 20-21, Francesca: neve - Part 1 of 3
If you do a search in Yabla, you’ll see just how often and in how many ways appunto is used. You may be baffled in many cases. Pinning down a precise meaning is tricky business, but with time, you’ll see it’s actually quite a useful way to make connections with just one word, when in English, you’d need many. The WordReference forum can give you more examples and explanations.
Attenzione! The adverb, appunto is not to be confused with the noun appunto (note, criticism).
Learning suggestion: Don’t worry too much about actually trying to use appunto, especially if you’re a beginner. For now, just check out how it’s used in the Yabla videos and be aware of why it’s there: to make connections.
When visiting a foreign country like Italy, there can be challenges to something as simple as asking for a un bicchiere d’acqua (a glass of water)! In fact, as Anna and Marika mention while enjoying a meal in a famous Roman restaurant, one of the first things the cameriere (waiter) will ask you is what you want to drink.
Il cameriere è venuto e ci ha portato dell'acqua naturale.
The waiter came and he brought us still water.
Ci ha prima chiesto se volevamo acqua gassata o naturale e noi abbiamo scelto naturale.
First he asked us if we wanted fizzy water or still and we chose still.
Captions 12-13, Anna e Marika: Trattoria Al Biondo Tevere - Part 1 of 3
Water is not served automatically, nor is it free unless you specifically ask for acqua del rubinetto (tap water). Italians commonly drink acqua minerale (mineral water, or sometimes simply bottled water) al ristorante (at a restaurant), and will choose either acqua gassata (fizzy water), or acqua naturale (plain or still mineral water). If you ask for ghiaccio (ice), they may give you funny look, but you can ask for your acqua fredda (cold) or a temperatura ambiente (at room temperature).
One of the last things you’ll do after a meal in a restaurant is ask for il conto (the bill). Sometimes, as might be the case with Marika and Anna, you decide to pay alla romana (Roman style) where the bill is divided equally among the number of people dining, regardless of what each person had to eat. But if you do want to pay, you can tell the friend who's taking his wallet out to leave it where it is. Stai buono/a. You’re saying, “be good” but you mean “stay as you are!”
Learning suggestion: Keep on the lookout for the verb stare (to be situated, to stay, to be) as you watch Yabla videos. It’s closely related to essere (to be) but implies a position or condition. Do a Yabla video search of both stare and stai to get a feel for when and how it’s used.
We saw in the last lesson how the verb sentire takes care of several of our senses. Not to leave out the sense of sight (la vista), let’s look at how it‘s used in some common expressions.
If we translate the English expression “I can’t wait” literally, it becomes non posso aspettare, and while this can be useful if someone is late, and you really can’t wait for him, we sometimes mean we are looking forward to something with anticipation. As we see in the following example, Italian uses the verb vedere (to see) to express this.
Francesca had been going back and forth about learning to drive. But now, she’s really looking forward to getting started, so much so that she “can’t see the hour.”
Ma invece adesso sono convintissima, motivata e non vedo l'ora di cominciare.
But now however I'm totally convinced, motivated and I can't wait to start.
Caption 4, Francesca alla guida - Part 2Play Caption
If there’s someone you don’t like very much, it’s probably someone you don’t want to see. In fact, if you say, non lo posso vedere (I can’t see him), you’re really saying you can’t bear seeing him. Note: If you do want to say that you can’t see something or someone, just say, non lo vedo (I don’t see it/him) or non riesco a vederlo (I don’t succeed in seeing it/him).
You might be so hungry you can’t see straight. It so happens that an expression made famous in an Italian TV commercial for a candy bar says just that. Non ci vedo più dalla fame! (I can’t see straight from hunger [I’m famished]!)
Many expressions using vedere (to see) and occhio (eye) do indeed coincide with the English use of the sense of sight. For example, visto che translates easily as “seeing that,” although we would usually sooner use “since.” It’s a good expression to have handy when you are explaining something, like the woman telling us about her day at the lake.
E visto che siamo solo ad un chilometro, penso che andrò e tenterò di rilassarmi tutto il giorno.
And since we are just one kilometer away, I think that I will go and try to relax all day.
Captions 12-13, Una gita al lago - Part 1Play Caption
When you want to talk to someone privately, you want to see the expression in their eyes as they speak, so parlare a quattr’occhi (to speak with four eyes) is to have a conversation face to face.
If something is super expensive, you might describe it as costing un occhio della testa (an eye of the head), which isn’t that different from paying “through the nose,” or something costing “an arm and a leg!"
When something is too obvious to question, you might hear this: Vorrei anche vedere (I’d also like to see that), meaning something like, “I should think so/not!” “Yeah, right,” or “No way.”
Putting it all together just for fun:
Stamattina sono andata a parlare a quattr’occhi con la mia professoressa anche se non la posso vedere. Ora non vedo l’ora di arrivare a casa perché non ci vedo più dalla fame. Visto che I panini al bar costavano un occhio della testa, vorrei anche vedere se ne compravo uno.
This morning I went to talk face to face with my teacher even though I can’t stand her. Now I can’t wait to get home because I’m starving. Seeing that the sandwiches at the bar cost an arm and a leg, there was no way I was buying one.
And to really conclude, chi s’è visto s’è visto (literally, “we’ve seen whomever we’ve seen” meaning, “that’s the end of it”).
Practice using the expressions in this lesson until they feel comfortable. (Think about all the the things you are looking forward to!) Then visit WordReference to see all the modi di dire connected with vedere, and add one or two more to your repertory.
Italians have a great word that encompasses four of our five senses (all but sight), and covers general sensory perception as well: sentire (to perceive). Marika and Daniela explain and conjugate sentire here. We’re going to talk about taste and smell, because these have to do with the real subject of this newsletter, the verb sapere (to know, or to give an impression, odor, or taste).
To talk about something tasting or smelling good (or bad) in Italian, we have to throw literal translations out the window (because no word really does the trick) and opt for a noun that can be either neutral—odore (odor), sapore (taste), gusto (flavor)—or specific—profumo (fragrance, scent), puzza stink). The verb we’ll use will be one of two. The first, avere (to have), we use when talking about what tastes or smells good or bad, certainly of utmost importance when choosing a truffle, for example:
ll tartufo deve avere un buon profumo.
The truffle should have a good smell.
Our second option is the all-encompassing sense word, sentire (to perceive), used when talking about our perception of a taste or a smell. Francesca had a smelly encounter with a dog and it came naturally to her to use sentire. It’s clear she’s talking about smell, not taste! She’s afraid she might be giving off a not-so-wonderful odor. Marika and Francesca assure each other:
Però la puzza non si sente. -Non si sente. Meno male.
But you can't smell the bad smell. -You can't smell it. Less bad [Good thing].
Caption 59, Francesca e Marika: Gestualità
We’ve been talking about the good or bad quality of a taste or smell. But if we want to describe the taste or smell in even more detail, then we turn to sapere, which, as we discussed in I Have This Feeling... Sapere Part 1, doesn’t always have to do with knowledge.
In this case the subject of the sentence is the food itself, or the situation if we’re speaking figuratively. These scenarios should help you get the idea:
You look in the fridge and open a jar of jam. Ugh!
Questa marmellata sa di muffa.
This jam smells like mold.
You made soup, but something’s not right.
Non sa di niente questa minestra. Ecco perché: Ho dimenticato il sale.
This soup doesn’t have any flavor. Here’s why: I forgot the salt.
You think someone is trying to give you a bum deal on a used car. You say to yourself:
Quest’affare sa di fregatura.
This deal smacks of a ripoff.
Later, when you’ve verified it was a bad deal, you can use the modo di dire from I Have This Feeling... Sapere Part 1 and say:
Mi sa che avevo ragione!
I guess I was right!
To sum up, remember that when sapere means “to know,” there will be a subject that’s a person (or animal), and what it is that the person knows, as a direct object.
Il gatto sa quando è ora di mangiare.
The cat knows when it’s time to eat.
But when sapere has to do with what something tastes or smells like, even figuratively, the subject will be the food or situation, and it will be followed by the preposition di like in the scenarios above.
And let’s not forget the modo di dire, “mi sa che/mi sa di si/no,” discussed in the I Have This Feeling... Sapere Part 1.
Now that you have some new insights on the world of tastes and smells, get a feel for how Italians talk about food by watching or re-watching Yabla videos on the subject. Truffles, wine, risotto, desserts: here’s the list. And if you’re planning on any wine-tasting, you’ll want to visit this quick WordReference thread.
And se te la senti (if you feel up to it)...
This example employs the different meanings of sapere. Can you tell them apart?
Lo sai che ho assaggiato la pomarola, ma sa di acido, quindi mi sa che non la mangerò anche se lo so che non mi amazzerebbe. -Sai che ti dico? Mi sa che fai bene a non mangiarla! Si sa che il cibo avariato fa male. Tutti sanno che la pomarola non deve sapere di acido, dovrebbe avere un buon sapore.
You know I tasted the tomato sauce, but it tasted sour, and so I guess I’m not going to eat it, even though I know it wouldn’t kill me. -You know what I say? I think you’re doing the right thing by not eating it! It’s well known that food gone bad is bad for you. Everyone knows that tomato sauce should not taste sour; it should taste good.
It’s always nice to have a variety of words that mean pretty much the same thing, so that, appunto (indeed), you don’t have to say the same thing all the time.
Sapere (to know) is normally about sure things. When you’re not quite sure about something, you use verbs like pensare (to think), credere (to believe), supporre (to suppose), or sembrare (to seem), among others. Right now, though, we’re going to talk about a very popular modo di dire (way of saying) that Italians use in everyday conversation when they don’t know for sure but they have a pretty good idea: mi sa che... (to me it gives the impression that...). But wait! If we don’t know for sure, why are we using the verb sapere? Good question! We’ll get to that, but first, let’s have a look at some real-life examples.
On its most practical level, mi sa che is used, for example, when someone is thinking out loud.
Anna is deciding which of the tantalizing Roman pasta dishes to order.
Guardi, mi sa che andrò sulle, ehm, linguine cacio e pepe.
Look, I think I'll go with the, uh, linguini with cheese and pepper.
Caption 9, Anna e Marika: Un Ristorante a Trastevere
Another way to translate what she said would be, “I guess I’ll go with the linguini...”
In the next example, however, it’s more about “I have a feeling” or “I sense.” Inspector Lara Rubino and another policewoman are looking at the telephone records from a murder victim’s phone and they see a very long list of women’s names. Lara comments dryly:
E da quanto vedo, mi sa che io e te siamo le uniche due sceme che non l'hanno conosciuto.
And from what I see, I have the impression that you and I are the only idiots who didn't get to know him.
As for why we use the verb sapere (to know) when we are really just guessing, well, it comes from the other major definition of sapere which has to do with the senses. In its intransitive form (without a direct object), sapere means “to have an odor or taste” (also in a figurative sense). Its figurative meaning is also “to give the impression of.” (English uses other senses to say the same kind of thing: “it looks like”; “it sounds like.”) If you think about it like this, does it make more sense?
In Italian colloquial speech, mi sa che, which is exclusive to the first person singular, is interchangeable with mi sembra che (it seems to me that) and is really quite user-friendly once you get the hang of it. There’s a whole WordReference page dedicated to it! See the long list of forum threads, too.
When you’re not feeling very chiacchierone (talkative), and a short answer will do, mi sa di sì/no works just like penso di sì (I think so), credo di no (I believe not), suppongo di sì (I suppose so), and gets followed by di rather than che.
Ah bè, perfetto. Allora forse mi conviene quello. -E mi sa di sì.
Oh OK, perfect. So maybe I am better off with that. -Yeah I'd guess so.
Caption 23-24, Passeggiando: per Roma - Part 3 of 5
In Part 2, we’ll talk more about sapere having to do with taste and smell, both literally and figuratively. Stay tuned.
1) To practice this new modo di dire, follow along with the transcript of a given video, selecting one with conversation. When you see a telltale penso che, credo che, mi sembra che, or suppongo che, press “pause.” Mentally insert mi sa che as a substitute and repeat the phrase.
2) Plan your day, thinking out loud about what you’ll probably do. Here’s a head start:
Mi sa che oggi salto la colazione, non c’è tempo. Mi sa che dovrò comprare il pane, perché mi sa che è finito. Ma mi sa che più tardi andrò in centro.
I guess I’ll skip breakfast; there’s no time. I guess I’ll have to buy bread, because I think there’s no more left. But I think later on, I’ll go downtown.
Quella gli faceva un regalino, quell'altra l'invitava a cena...
One would give him a little gift, another would invite him to dinner...
Captions 38-39, Il Commissario Manara: Rapsodia in Blu - Ep 3 - Part 3 of 15
Eh, ma mi sa che questo è l'ultimo anno che ti posso regalare le mie scarpe.
Uh, I guess this is the last year that I can give you my shoes.
Captions 4-5, Un medico in famiglia: 1 - Casa nuova - Part 10 of 16
Regalo is analogous with “present,” and it’s the word you will be using most of the time. However, another way to say “gift,” which often implies a divine or important giver, is dono. You’ll hear it in conjunction with traditions, and indeed, dono is used like regalo in talking about what Santa Claus brings down the chimney.
Ovviamente ai bambini portava doni.
Obviously to children he brought gifts.
Donare is easy to remember, being very similar to “donate.” In fact, as a verb, donare can mean “to donate,” as in money or blood: donare sangue (to give blood). Blood donors are donatori di sangue.
Of course, gifts are not always tangible.
Lavoro con un grande dono prezioso che ognuno di noi ha... Lavoro con la mia voce.
I work with a precious gift that each one of us has... I work with my voice.
Caption 5-6, Marika e Daniela: Intervista a Daniela Bruni
And now you need to stretch your mind a bit because the giver is an item of clothing. The shirt in question gives the wearer some positive quality. This particular use of donare is worth remembering because it’s a wonderful way to compliment someone! (Note that the person is using the polite form; to a friend you would say ti dona.)
Ah... ma lo sa che questa camicia le dona? Fa esaltare il colore dei suoi occhi.
Ah... you know that this shirt looks good on you? It brings out the color of your eyes.
Il ragazzo è dotato per la musica e sua sorella invece è dotata per il disegno.
The boy is a gifted musician while his sister is a gifted artist.
Ha una dote per la musica.
He has a gift for music.
We could say that God, or some higher being has “provided” that boy with his gift for music. So don’t be surprised if you go to buy a TV in Italy and the salesman tells you that la TV è dotata di telecommando (the TV is supplied with remote control). Not God-given, but factory-given!
To sum up on a practical level (leaving Christmas, weddings, and TVs aside):
What are your natural talents or gifts? What about those of your family and friends? What did you get for a present on your last birthday? Do you know people who give blood? What are the earth’s natural gifts? Make a list of what comes to mind and then choose the Italian word that is closest in meaning.
To test out any phrases you come up with, just Google them and you will probably get some clues. If you have doubts, use WordReference or other dictionaries to get some more complete input than this lesson can provide.
Let's talk about two different ways to say "some" in Italian. While they can mean the same thing, they are used in different ways, so let's dig in.
Master chef Gualtiero Marchesi is talking about one of the most famous northern Italian recipes, risotto alla milanese, and the symbolic meaning of the saffron that gives it a special color and taste:
Il giallo dello zafferano era, in qualche modo, il giallo dell'oro.
The yellow of saffron was, in some way, the yellow of gold.
Caption 21, L'arte della cucina Terre d'Acqua - Part 9Play Caption
In qualche modo (in some way) could also have been translated as “in a way” or “in some ways.” Qualche is purposely ambiguous and implies a small, unspecified quantity that could even be just one.
Despite its often plural meaning, qualche must always be followed by a noun in the singular. Let’s see this word in context as we put the finishing touches on a fancy dish. Goccia (drop) is singular but the meaning is plural, by just a little bit.
Condiremo con un pochino di sale fino, del pepe nero, qualche goccia di succo di limone, dell'olio di oliva extravergine delicato.
We'll season with a little fine salt, some black pepper, a few drops of lemon juice, some delicate extra virgin olive oil.
Captions 12-15, Battuta di Fassone in Insalata ChefPlay Caption
You don’t need to know the plural or even the gender of the word you are modifying. You just need to remember to use a singular noun following it!
Now let’s look at another way to say “some” or “a few”: alcuni and alcune. Unlike qualche, which is quite close to a singular quantity, alcuni and alcune, although not specific, are clearly plural. In fact, the nouns they modify appear in the plural, and, like articles and other adjectives, these modifiers change their endings according to the gender. Alcuni modifies masculine nouns and alcune modifies feminine nouns.
Alessio Berti has a few dishes to show us:
Adesso vi farò vedere alcuni piatti di semplice realizzazione eh de'... della nostra carta.
Now I'm going to show you some dishes that are simple to make, um from... from our menu.
Captions 3-4, Ricette dolci Crème brûlée alla bananaPlay Caption
And where can we find the milk for this delicious crème brûlée?
Spesso, in alcune fattorie, puoi trovare dei prodotti caseari.
Often, on some farms, you can find dairy products.
Caption 18, Marika spiega Gli animali della fattoriaPlay Caption
Note that while qualche is always followed by the word it modifies, alcuni/alcune can stand alone as a kind of pronoun, much like its English counterparts (some, a few). To determine which ending to employ, we refer to the gender of the modified noun, even if it's absent. We see this in the following example, where sculptor Claudio Capotondi is talking about his studio full of marble, drawings, models, and whatnot.
Ci sono vari bozzetti, progetti, che sono sedimentati nel tempo, alcuni realizzati, altri...
There are many small-scale models, projects, that have been accumulated over time, some completed, others...
Captions 9-11, Claudio Capotondi Scultore - Part 4Play Caption
Qualche and alcuni/alcune can only be used with countable nouns in Italian. We’ll work with uncountable nouns in a future lesson. For now, follow these rules: To be vague, use qualche, which always goes with a singular noun even when its meaning is plural. To be more clearly plural, use alcuni or alcune alone or with a plural noun whose gender tells us which to use.
To practice using these modifiers, try swapping qualche and alcuni/alcune wherever they occur. There are situations where one is more common than the other, and you’ll gradually get a feel for it. Visit wordreference.com to get some input on phrases with qualche, and don’t forget to have a look at the long list of forum threads about this word. See this blog about alcuni and qualche.
In Italian, as in any language, there’s more than one way to say sì (yes). As we’ll see, there are situations in which it’s more to the point to use words like certo (certainly), va bene (OK), senz’altro (definitely), or come no (of course). Even just changing the number of times we say sì, along with our tone of voice, can change its effect. Said just once, it can be rather dry, or, depending on how it is said, it can leave a little room for doubt. Said twice, sì sì (the first one higher pitched than the second), it indicates that the speaker is sure of his answer. But attenzione, this double sì sì can also imply irony! Three times, repeated rapidly, really emphasizes that there’s no question, no doubt: Of course it’s yes.
Ma posso prendere anche la metropolitana?
But can I also take the subway?
Sì, sì, sì, dura settantacinque minuti e puoi fare una corsa autobus e una corsa metro.
Yes, yes, yes, it’s good for seventy-five minutes and you can take one bus ride and one subway ride.
Captions 17-18, Passeggiando: per Roma - Part 3 of 5
When you want to say "OK" (meaning "yes"), va bene* fits the bill.
Ti va di andare a prendere un caffè? -Ehm, va bene.
You feel like going to get a coffee? -Uh, OK.
Captions 32 and 34, Passeggiando: per Roma - Part 3 of 5
Senz’altro is a strong yes and leaves no room for doubt.
E un'altra cosa, potrebbe trovarmi una sistemazione per stasera?
And another thing; could you find me an accommodation for tonight?
Senz'altro dottore, ci penso io.
Definitely, Doctor; I'll take care of it.
Captions 36-37, Il Commissario Manara: Un delitto perfetto - Ep 1 - Part 4 of 14
In fact, senz’altro is also used to mean "without a doubt" or "undoubtedly" and can replace sicuramente (surely).
Hanno senz’altro dimenticato l’appuntamento.
They undoubtedly forgot the appointment.
In conversation, sì (or its equivalents) will often be preceded or followed by the non-word eh, which is used to reinforce the word, like in sì eh! (yeah, really!). Other words that can precede these yes words to give them more importance are e (and) and ma (but).
Che peccato! -Eh sì, che peccato.
What a shame! -Oh yes, what a shame.
Caption 19, Francesca: alla guida - Part 4
E certo. Che faccio, riesco, mi metto la cravatta e torno?
Sure. What do I do, go out, put on a tie, and come back?
Me la vuole dare questa stanza? -Ma certo che gliela do questa stanza.
Well, you want to give me this room? -But of course I'll give you this room.
Use d’accordo (agreed) to say yes to an invitation.
Andiamo al cinema insieme? -D’accordo.
Shall we go to the movies together? -Sure.
Sometimes you wouldn’t dream of saying no, so you say the literal equivalent of "how not?":
Posso farmi un panino? -Come no, io ricomincio a suonare.
May I make myself a sandwich? -Of course. I'll start playing again.
Caption 20, Escursione: Un picnic in campagna - Part 4 of 4
Come no is also used to contradict a false negative statement:
La Francia non è in Europa. -Come no!
France is not in Europe. -Yes, it is!
And that’s the story on sì. There are, senz’altro, still more ways to say sì, but this can get you started. As you go about your day, think positive! Say yes! Say it in Italiano and say it in as many ways as you can.
* More about va bene in: Corso di italiano con Daniela: Chiedere "Come va?"
P.S. You can’t always know your mind. So if you’re not sure you want to say yes, or you just don’t know the answer, have Arianna tell you what to say both in Italian and in Italian body language! Arianna spiega: I gesti degli Italiani - Part 2 of 2
We talked a little about reflexive personal pronouns in Ci Gets Around. They are: mi (myself), ti (yourself), ci (ourselves), si (himself/herself/itself/themselves), and vi (yourselves).
The reflexive is necessary in Italian when someone (or something) is both the doer and the receiver of an action. Reflexive pronouns will be found lurking somewhere in the sentence, or attached either to the main verb or helping verb (like fare). The reflexive is worth paying attention to because it’s used a lot more than we might think, and its presence will often change the meaning of the verb it refers to in a subtle but important way. We saw this in the lesson Making It Happen with the verb prestare.
So, for instance, if you hide something, the verb you are looking for is nascondere.
E poi, ho pensato di nascondere il corpo e... l'ho caricato in macchina e... non ri', non ricordo più niente.
And then, I thought of hiding the body and... I loaded it into the car and... I can't re', can't remember anything else.
Captions 57-59, Il Commissario Manara S1EP2 - Vendemmia tardiva - Part 14Play Caption
But if you are the one hiding, you’ll need the reflexive form, nascondersi (literally, to hide oneself). A marine biologist dives down to the bottom of the sea surrounding the Aeolian Islands to show us the beautiful creatures there.
Probabilmente, sta cercando una tana per nascondersi da me.
She's probably looking for a hole in order to hide from me.
Caption 23, Linea Blu Le Eolie - Part 7Play Caption
The same holds here, where avvicinare, by itself, means to move something closer. But if you add the reflexive, it’s something or someone that is getting closer.
Il prossimo che si avvicina all'acquario... m'ingoio voi [sic] e tutta la famiglia, hm.
The next one who comes near the aquarium... I'll swallow you and the whole family, hmm.
Captions 57-58, Acqua in bocca Mp3 Marino - Ep 2Play Caption
When it’s all about you, you’ll use the reflexive with many of the verbs you use to talk about your daily routines.
Di solito, io mi sveglio alle sette in punto.
Usually, I wake up at seven on the dot.
Caption 4, Marika spiega: L'orologio
Sometimes fare (in its reflexive form) gets called in for an assist: instead of docciarsi (to shower), we can say farsi la doccia (to take a shower):
Mi faccio la doccia alle sette e mezza.
I take a shower at half past seven.
Caption 6, Marika spiega: L'orologio
Now you should be ready to reflect on the reflexive! Get the whole picture on reflexive verbs here. For the scoop on reflexive pronouns, you can get help here. For even more on the reflexive, see this online resource.
Try to put your daily routine into words, using the dictionary (and the above-mentioned online resources) if necessary. Maybe your routine goes something like this:
Ti svegli alle 6 di mattina ma ti addormenti di nuovo e quindi ti alzi alle sei e mezza. Ti fai un buon caffè e poi ti fai la doccia, ti lavi i denti, e ti vesti. Se fa freddo ti metti una giacca prima di uscire.* Nascondi la chiave sotto lo zerbino. Ti fai prestare un biglietto per l’autobus.
You wake up at 6 in the morning, but you fall asleep again so you get up at 6:30. You make yourself a nice cup of coffee and then you take a shower, you brush your teeth and you get dressed. If it’s cold, you put on a jacket before going out. You hide the key under the doormat. You borrow a ticket for the bus.
*More about what to wear in Marika spiega: L'abbigliamento - Part 1 of 2.
Tocca a te! (It’s your turn!)
Fare (to make) is a verb for getting things done. It’s about as universal in Italian as “get” (or “have”) is in English and frequently means about the same thing.
Here, fare really does mean “to make”:
Eccolo. Questo è il vino che faccio con mio nonno.
Here it is. This is the wine I make with my grandfather.
Captions 7-8, Escursione Un picnic in campagna - Part 3Play Caption
Fare used simply, as in the above example, indicates you are doing the work. If, instead of doing something yourself, you have it done by someone else, you’ll generally use fare plus the verb in the infinitive:
Se vuole, La faccio accompagnare da uno dei miei ragazzi.
If you'd like, I'll have one of my guys accompany you.
Caption 19, Una gita al lago - Part 3Play Caption
When you need to borrow something, fare loans itself to you because there’s no single word in Italian that means “to borrow.” You need to “get something lent to you,” so you use the verb prestare (to lend) but you turn it around using fare, plus, depending on whom you are talking about, the appropriate reflexive personal pronoun.
La mia dolce Ninetta riceve anche la visita di Pippo, un altro servitore di Casa Vingradito, e riesce a farsi prestare da Pippo alcune monete.
My sweet Ninetta also gets a visit from Pippo, another servant from the Vingradito home, and is able to borrow a few coins from Pippo.
Captions 11-13, Anna e Marika in La Gazza Ladra - Part 2Play Caption
The same idea holds for showing something to someone: you need to “make them see it.”
Adesso vi farò vedere alcuni piatti di semplice realizzazione
Now I'm going to show you some dishes that are simple to make
Caption 3, Ricette dolci Crème brûlée alla bananaPlay Caption
Fare can also be intended as “get,” “have,” or “let,” depending on the context. Here, fare is used in a command:
Fammi uscire! Ehi, fammi uscire!
Let me out! Hey, let me out!
Captions 52-53, Acqua in bocca Mp3 Marino - Ep 2Play Caption
There’s lots more to say about fare, but for now, when you tune into Yabla, try to start noticing how people talk about getting things done using this catch-all word. To get more acquainted with fare, have a look here and here.
Think about some things you would like to get done (or have already had done). Here are some ideas to work with. Try turning them into questions or changing the person, tense, subject, object, or verb, or you can make up your own sentences from scratch.
Faccio sempre pulire la casa da professionisti.
I always have the house cleaned by professionals.
Facciamo riparare la nostra macchina dal meccanico in paese.
We get our car repaired by the mechanic in town.
Mi sono fatta fare un tatuaggio.
I got a tattoo. (This is a woman speaking. A man would say, Mi sono fatto fare un tatuaggio.)
Vorrei farmi fare un vestito da una sarta.
I’d like to get a dress made for me by a seamstress.
Non mi lavo i capelli da sola. Li faccio lavare dalla parrucchiera.
I don’t wash my own hair. I get it washed at the hairdresser’s.
Ti voglio fare conoscere un amico.
I want to introduce you to a friend.
Voglio farti conoscere un amico.
I want to introduce you to a friend.
Mi fai vedere le tue foto?
Will you show me your pictures?
Joining a language forum such as WordReference can be helpful for getting feedback on your attempts.